Home » Understanding Semen Analysis, its Parameters and Azoospermia (No Sperm Count)

Understanding Semen Analysis, its Parameters and Azoospermia (No Sperm Count)

What is Semen?

The Semen is a thick fluid that is released from a man’s penis when they ejaculate during sexual activity. It carries sperm from the man’s body so that it can fertilize eggs and produce an embryo (the initial stage of the pregnancy process).

What is Semen Analysis?

Semen analysis is a test done on semen samples to evaluate sperm count, motility & morphology.

Understanding the Semen Analysis

Semen analysis tests for the following characteristics:

  • The number of sperm (volume)
  • The shape of the sperm 
  • The movement of sperm also known as “sperm motility

The number, shape and movement of sperm are crucial for the testing of male factors infertility. The doctor might suggest taking up to three samples of sperm over a number of sessions to ensure a thorough analysis.

What is the normal Semen Parameter?

The following are normal or healthy semen analysis results according to World Health Organization (WHO)

Sperm ParametersCut-Off Value
Sperm Volume> 1.5 ml
Sperm Concentration> 15 million / ml
Total Sperm Count > 39 million
Sperm Progressive Motility (A+B)> 32%
Sperm Morphology> 4%
Sperm DNA Fragmentation< 30%
Non-Sperm Cells< 1 million / ml

Why is the sperm count important?

If you’re trying to get pregnant naturally having a healthy sperm count is typically required. Although it takes only one egg and one sperm to become pregnant, having more healthy sperm will improve the chances of having a baby.

What are the reasons for low sperm count & motility?

 Low sperm count can be an inherent reduced capacity of testicles to produce sperms next to testicular infections, fibrosis, varicocele, nutrient deficiencies, diabetes, addictions- alcohol, tobacco, etc., and thyroid deficiency.

It can also be related to the occupation of the male partners, for example- working in heated areas like mining industries, chemical exposure like pesticide industries, textile industries, and cement industries.

What is Azoospermia?

It is a condition where no sperm is seen in semen sample even after centrifugation of semen sample which was evaluated at least twice at a gap of 4 weeks.

What Are The Causes of Azoospermia?

Each type of azoospermia has its own set of possible causes or associated conditions. Azoospermia can be obstructive or non – obstructive.

Obstructive Azoospermia- In this condition, there is a blockage in vas deference a tube that carries sperms from testicles to penile passage. Hence all sperms remain in the testicles and no sperm are seen in the semen samples.

Non-obstructive Azoospermia- In this condition, there is no obstruction found & testicles fail to produce sperms hence no sperm is seen in the semen samples.

Can alcohol intake & smoking affect sperm parameters?

Yes, alcohol & smoking significantly affects sperm count & motility and sperm potential to fertilize oocyte leading to fertility issues.

What medications are helpful in improving semen parameters?

The following are the most common medications used to improve semen parameters:

  • Mainly Antioxidants in adequate dosage, coenzyme Q 10 300 mg, zinc 5 mg, L–CARNITINE 500MG, LYCOPENE 5000 IU, ASTAXANTHIN 16 MG. are useful.
  • Vitamin C has a special role in patients who have a history of smoking.
  • Clomiphene citrate 25 mg dosage over 3 months.

What are the medical treatments for azoospermia?

Hormonal therapies are useful in cases of azoospermia next to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism – a condition where pituitary hormones are not released in the body needed to stimulate testicles to form sperms.

A Note from Veda Care Fertility & Urology Centre

It can be disturbing to hear words like “no-sperm count” or being diagnosed with azoospermia. Keep calm, just because you have this condition does not necessarily mean that you cannot have biological children.

There are many factors that can contribute to your sperm count, including lifestyle, medical history, etc. If you have a low sperm count, you can visit our fertility clinic and consult Dr. Prakash Tejwani- A urology specialist in Mira Road who will guide you and recommend options for you to raise your sperm count.

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